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Autor: Martin Bulín
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Canada
  • brief history of Canada
  • basic facts - geography, land and climate, government, people, economy
  • places of interest - Atlantic Provinces, Prairie Provinces, The Territories

Some important historical factsCanada - map

  • The first Europeans known to have reached North America were Viking colonist of Iceland and Greenland (about 985 A. D.)
  • 1497: John Cabot, an Italian in the service of England renewed contact with northern North America, when he sailed to Newfoundland
  • he was soon followed by other explorers: Martin Frobisher, John Davis and Henry Hudson
  • Jacques Cartier explored the Gulf of St. Lawrence, spent the winter at Stadacona (today Quebec City), Cartier brought back a name for the country, Canada, which seems to mean „village"
  • 1754 – 1763 – Britain defeated France in the French and Indian War → the territory formerly known as New France became British North America
  • 1763: King George III. issued the first constitutional document of the new colonies, the Royal Proclamation
  • on July 1, 1867: the Dominion of Canada, with four provinces – Quebec (Canada East), Ontario (Canada West), New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia – came into being. Ottawa was chosen as the national capital
  • 1964: Prime Minister Lester Pearson introduced legislation for a new flag with maple leaf insignia
  • on April 1, 1999: a large region of the Northwest Territories officially became the separate territory of Nunavut, the first Canadian territory or province with a majority Inuit population. Paul Okalik, a young Inuit lawyer, became Nunavut's first territorial premier

Basic facts

  • Capital: OttawaCanada - flag
  • Official language(s): English and French
  • National symbols: Maple leaf and beaver
  • Largest cities: Montreal, Calgary, Toronto, Vancouver

Land and climate

  • Land: In northern North America. Borders the United States and the Atlantic, Pacific and Arctic oceans. Mountains in the west – the Coastal Mountains, the Rocky Mountains. Mostly flat or gently rolling from eastern edge of Rockies to Quebec. Shares four of the five Great Lakes (all but Mitchigan) with the USA. Chief rivers include the St. Lawrence, the mackenzie, and the Fraser River
  • Area: 9 970 610 km2 (second largest country in the world)
  • Elevation: the highest – Mount Logan in St. Elias Mountains, Yukon; the lowest: sea level
  • Climate: Extremely cold in the north, generally cold elsewhere, but with warmer temperatures along the west coast. The Pacific Ocean moderates west coast temperatures: mild summers and cool winters. Central Canada has short, mild summers and very cold winters.

Government

  • Form of government: Constitutional monarchy, in practise a parliamentary democracy with a federal systém
  • Head of state: the Queen of the United Kingdom, who is also the Queen of Canada. In practise, governor general performs duties in Queen's absence
  • Legislature: Parliament of two houses. 104-member appointed Senate and 295-member elected House of Commons. House of Commons is much more powerful than Senate.
  • Political subdivisions: 10 provinces, 3 territories

People

  • Population: 32 507 874 (2004)
  • Major ethnic/national groups: European descendants, Asian, native people (American Indians, Inuit)

Economy

  • Chief products: agriculture – wheat, beef, cattle, barley, fishing (cod, lobster, salmon), manufacturing – motor vehicles, food products, machinery, wood, petroleum
  • Export: motor vehicles, wood, wheat
  • Import: computers, electronic and electric applliances, scientific equipment

Places of interest

  • Atlantic Provinces
    • Newfoundland and Labrador
    • Prince Edward Island
    • Nova Scotia
    • New Brunswick
    • Quebec
    • Ontario
    • Niagara Falls
  • Prairie Provinces
    • Manitoba
    • Saskatchewan
    • Alberta
    • British Columbia
  • The Territories
    • The Northwest Territory
    • The Yukon Territory
  • The Nunavut
 
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