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Autor: Martin Bulín
Vloženo: 18. 02.2011
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History and traditions of the USA
  • History: Columbus, Pilgrims - Mayflower, Treaty of Paris, The Boston Tea Party, The Declaration of Independence, The Bill of Rights, The Gold Rush, Civil War, The Emancipation Proclamation, era of expansion, The Great Depression, ...
  • Traditions: Christmas, Thanksgiving, Halloween, Independence Day, Columbus Day, Memorial Day, Veterans Day, President's Day, Saluting the flag

History of the USA

  • 1492: Christopher Columnus sailing under the Spanish flag discovered AmericaPilgrims

  • The English made the first permanent settlement in New World in Jamestown, Virginia

  • 1620: Pilgrims from the ship Mayflower established a settlement at Plymouth

  • Pennsylvania was settled by a religious group led by W. Penn, commonly called Quakers

  • After the decisive war between France and England, which ended with Treaty of Paris in 1763, England became the supreme power in America

  • 1773: The Boston Tea Party was the first action in a chain leading to the War of Independence with Britain

  • 1776: The Declaration of Independence (prepared chiefly by Thomas Jefferson) was adopted

  • 1789: George Washington, the first US president, was inaugurated

  • 1791: The Bill of Rights was ratified and its first ten amendments were added to the Constitution

  • 1800: the national capital was moved from Philadelphia to Washington

  • the historic Gold Rush started after the conquest of California in 1849 – it is described especially in Jack London's books

  • 1861: the Civil War started, after the Confederate batteries at Charleston fired on the Union-held Fort Sumter

  • 1863: The Emancipation Proclamation took effect, slavery was abolished

  • 1865: General Lee surrendered to General Grant, the war ended, Lincoln was assasinated five days after the surrender at Appomattox, at Ford's Theatre in Washington D.C. by southern fanatic John W. Booth – probably

  • 1877 – 1914: the era of expansion and reform was characterized by great inventions (e.g. a plane – Wright brothers, a telephone - Bell, an electric light - Edison, a car – Ford)

  • 1917: the USA declared war on Germany, president of the USA was Wilson at that time

  • 1929: the stock market crashed and began the era called Great Depression

  • 1932: F. D. Roosewelt was elected president – his political programme was called New Deal

  • 1941: the Japenese attacked Pearl Harbor, USA entered World War II.

  • 6. 6. 1944: Invasion of Normandy Beaches – D-day

  • 8. 5. 1945: V-E-day (Victory in Europe)

  • 6. 8. 1945: Atomic bomb Hirošima

  • 14. 8. 1945: Atomic bomb Nagasaki

  • 2. 9. 1945: V-J-day (Victory in Japan)

  • The Cold War – conflict without weapons with Russian

  • 1963: J. F. Kennedy was assasinated

  • 1973: USA troops withdraw from Vietnam

  • Watergate – president Nixon had to resign

  • 11. 9. 2001: terrorists destroyed the World Trade Centre

  • March 2003: War in Irak

 

Traditions in the USA

Americans celebrate an enormous variety of festivals and holidays because they come from all over the world and practise many religions. They also celebrate holidays specific to the United States that commemorate historical events.

  • Christmas – December 25th

    • Santa Claus, brighly decorated Christmas trees, plenty of wreathes, holly, and ribbons are some of the typical symbols of this season

    • What is interesting is that children get their presents on the 25th in the morning

  • Thanksgiving – the last Thursday in NovemberThanksgiving day

    • it has become a celebration of the bounty of food and the warmth of family life in America

    • the original event: Pilgrims sharing a harvest feast with Native Americans

    • the holiday lasts for days and the celebration is centered on the traditional Thanksgiving meal: turkey accompanied by foods common in early New England settlements, such as pumpkins, squashes and cranberries

  • Halloween – October 31thHalloween

    • the eve of All Saint's Day

    • it has become a celebration of witches, ghosts, goblins and candy that is especially attractive to children

    • many homes are decorated and lit by jack-o'-lanterns (pumpkins with horrible face)

    • children dress up and go trick-or-treating, during which they receive treats from neighbours.

  • Independence Day – July 4th

    • it commemorates the day the United States proclaimed its freedom from Britain with the Declaration of Independence in 1776

    • since at least 19th century Americans have commemorate their independence with fireworks and patriotic music

  • Columbus Day – October 12th

    • it is now celebrated on the second Monday of October to allow for a three-day weekend

  • Memorial Day – May 30th

    • it was established to honour those who died during the American Civil War (1861 – 1865), then subsequently those who died in all American wars

  • Veterans Day – November 11thVeterans day

    • end of World War I. (1914 – 1918)

  • President's Day – third Monday in February

    • something between the day when George Washington (22th) was born and the day when Abraham Lincoln was born (12th), and also to allow a three-day-long weekend

  • Othes holidays are: St. Patrick's day, Ester, Valentine's day, Mother's day, New Year of course

 

When we speak about traditions of the USA we should notice saluting the flag as well. The American flag is one of the oldest in the world.

  • the flag should be flown only from sunrise to sunset, upon special occasions, however, it may be displayed at night to produce a patriotic effect

  • the flag should be displayed during school days in or near every schoolhouse

  • when used to cover a coffin, the flag should be placed so that the union is at the head and over the left shoulder, the flag should not be lowered into the grave or be allowed to touch the ground, the coffin should be carried foot first


 
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